Science knowledge of solar photovoltaic
1 The principle of solar battery power generation
Solar battery is a device which can response to light and make luminous energy converted into electrical energy. There are many kinds of materials which can produce photovoltaic effect, such as monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, CIS, etc. Their generating principles are basically the same. Now take crystalline silicon for example to describe the process of luminous energy into electrical energy. P crystalline silicon mixed with phosphorus makes N crystalline silicon, and then forms the PN junction.

As shown in Figure 1.It's shown by text diagram below.


When the surface of solar battery exposed to light, some of the photons are absorpted by the silicon material; The energy of photons is delivered to the silicon atom, then the electrons become free electrons by leaping and gather between both sides of the PN junction. At last, potential difference exists. When the external circuit is connected, with the voltage there will be current flowing through the external circuit to produce certain output power. The essence of this process is that the energy of photons converted into electrical energy.

2 The production process of crystalline silicon solar battery
"Silicon" is one of the most abundant materials in storage on our planet. Since the last century when scientists discovered the semiconductor characteristic of crystalline silicon, crystalline silicon almost has changed everything, even human thought. At the end of the 20th century, we can see "silicon" everywhere in our lives. Crystalline silicon solar battery is nearly the fastest to form the industrialization in the last 15 years. The production process can be divided into five steps, that is a) purification, b) drawn rod, c) slicing, d) making battery and e) packaging, as is shown below.

3 Applications of solar batteries
In 1960s, scientists had used solar batteries in space technology-- power supply for communication satellites. At the end of the last century, human beings began continuous self-reflection process and became more and more cordial for such clean and direct form of energy. its not only in space but also in many fields, for example, solar energy courtyard lights, solar energy generating systems , independent power supply systems for villages, PV pumps (drinking or irrigation), communication power, cathode protection of oil pipeline, pumping station power of communications optical cable, sea water desalination systems, road signs of cities, towns and highways. Around the turn of the century, advanced European countries include photovoltaic generation into the electricity system of the cities and natural village power supply systems of outlying areas. The combination of solar batteries and building systems has formed the industrial trend. The composition of the photovoltaic power system:

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